The Early History of the Affenpinscher

 

Affenpinschers in Europe in the early 1900s

(Photos from breed standards Germany and France)

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Although dogs resembling the Affenpinscher are noted as far back as the 15th and 16th Century in artwork from those periods, the dogs of this breed type were first named by the German name of "Zwergaffenpinscher" in the late 17th century.  Literally translated:


“zwerg” meaning  "miniature" or "little"
“affen” meaning  “monkey”
and “pinscher” meaning  “dog”

The breed's German creators gave the first of their kind a very descriptive name of the “little monkey dog.” The breed initially was in a variety of sizes. Some believed to be as large as 18 inches in height. Later the larger dogs, which at one time were the more popular, were phased out and the focus was that "Affenpinschers" were to be a "toy" dog therefore it is also believed at that time the term "zwerg" was no longer deemed necessary.

The Affenpinscher is a decendant of dogs that were originally found in Germany which were later selectively bred to create the Pinscher-Schnauzer breeds from that country.

Below is a chart of the development of the Pinscher-Schnauzer breeds stemming from the region of Germany. 

It is evident that the Affenpinscher type dog is one that was created fairly early.                                                     

 

 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
GERMAN PINSCHER-SCHNAUZER

DOGS OF GERMANY

 

 

BIBARHUND

(7th Century)

 

 

TANNER (14th Century)

 

 

BENTCHUR or RATTENFANGER
(19th Century)

 

 

PINSCHER

 

 GLATTHAARINGE PINSCHER
(smooth haired pinscher)

RAUHHAARIGE PINSCHER
(rough-haired pinscher)

KLEINER PINTSCH
(small pinscher)

GLATTEN PINTSCH

(smooth pinscher)

SEIDEN PINTSCH
(silk pinscher)

RAUHEN PINTSCH

(rough pinscher)

 

GROSSEN PINTSCH       

(large pinscher)

GLATTHAARGE ZWERGPINSCHER (smooth-haired  miniature pinscher)

GLATTHAARGE PINSCHER

(smooth-haired  pinscher)

ZWERG
AFFENPINSCHER

(miniature monkey pinscher)

RAUHHAARIGE

ZWERGPINSCHER

(rough-haired   miniature pinscher)

RAUHHAARIGE PINSCHER       (rough-haired pinscher)

SAUBELLER

or

SAUFINDER

DEUTSCHE KURZHAARIGE ZWERGPINSCHER  (German shorthair miniature pinscher)

DEUTSCHE KURZHAARIGE PINSCHER

(German shorthair pinscher)

ZWERG
AFFENPINSCHER

(miniature monkey pinscher)

DEUTSCHE RAUHHAARIGE ZWERGPINSCHER                (German rough-haired miniature pinscher)

DEUTSCHE RAUHHAARIGE PINSCHER  (German   rough-haired pinscher)

OBERLANDER

___________________

MUNCHENER SCHNAUZER

ZWERGPINSCHER 

or 

MINIATURE PINSCHER

DEUTSCHE PINSCHER

or

GERMAN PINSCHER

AFFENPINSCHER

(monkey pinscher)

ZWERGSCHNAUZER

or

MINIATURE  SCHNAUZER

MITTEL SCHNAUZER    or        STANDARD SCHNAUZER

RIESENSCHNAUZER

or


GIANT SCHNAUZER

(*Chart adapted from AKC Gazette,Jan.2003, Vol 120, No. 1, Drawing below from same issue)

 

Pinscherschnauzergroup

Breeds from left to right, Affenpinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Giant Schnauzer, Miniature Schnauzer, German Pinscher, and Standard Schnauzer

 

 

Most likely there was an effort to have the rougher coated dogs with the small dog body for the ease of having them in the home chasing rodents.  There existed Pinscher-Schnauzer type dogs which were originally used in stables for this purpose.  This dog was agile and small and caught its prey with a pouncing motion.  The rough hair provided a barrier to the elements and brambles if working outdoors.  These types of dogs moved indoors and were referred to in areas like Munich after the 15th century as, the “rough-haired little dogs" or rauhhaarige zwergpinschers.

 

great chase

 

The Affenpinscher type dogs became more and more popular throughout Europe with the industrialization at the end of the 19th century.  The stud book beginnings of the Affenpinscher is found in Volume 1, 1902, of the Pinscher-Klub which was founded in 1895; there were 14 registrations. The Pinscher Klub registered them at that time as a RAUHHAARIGE ZWERGPINSCHER (or rough-haired miniature pinscher), probably with the thought of separating the rough-haired Pinschers into two groups (large and small) in the breeding.  Nevertheless, in the pictures in the first German breeding book, these dogs resemble the Affenpinscher more than the Schnauzer.  Classes for the Rauhhaarige Zwergpinscher were first held at a show in Germany in 1889. 

The label of “Affenpinscher” was used for the first time at a show in Frankfurt am Main, 1902. The Judge Hamecher emphasized how the exhibits had “beautiful apple heads." 

 

”Die Deutschen Hunde”
(The German Dog)

Published in 1905 by Richard Strebel, depicts the Affenpinscher in the lower left corner.


                                                                                   
 Strebel artwork

A translation and adaptation regarding initial entries for Affenpinschers and coat colors from the German Studbook Stammbäume:

In the stud book of the PK, volume II, 1903-1907 we find registered for the first time the Affenpinscher as a separate breed.  This volume has 14 entries; six Affenpinschers out of Munich, three out of Saxons, three out of the Rhineland, one out of Holland and one out of the Alsace.  The colors of these first Affenpinschers are:  4 yellow, 3 red yellow, 2 black, 2 black and gray stitched (or patterned?), 1 black gray, 1 gray brown, and 1 without the color stated.  Under these dogs, those well known are mentioned- Sg.  488 Z.S patch Munich and Bes.  Frau Hermann-Rabausch, Munich and Ferners Zamperl, 644, Z. and Bes.  Furthermore, Munich-Schwabing.  Zamperl is considered as the father of the breed of the Munich breedings.  Breeder, Frau Hermann-Rabausch, Munich; Countess Larisch, Munich; in addition, Munich; Frau Eugenie Mann, Leipzig and H. Müller, Leisnitz Sa., are the most important in this earliest period of breeding. 

The volume III of the PK, 1908 to 1910, contains 18 entries, including  “Flick-Sacheros", 1090, breeding; J. Sacherl, Munich; “Kuckcuck Diablo", 1295, Z.:  Frau Schottenhammel, Munich was very important in the development of the breed. The influence shifts itself more on Munich with 10 entries, then Saxons with four, Baden-Württemberg with one and Rhineland with one.  Five animals are indicated with black color, three red yellow, two yellow, two black gray, a red black, a black gray with yellow marks, one gray, one red, two without statements (no color listed). 

Volume IV, 1911 to 1913, showed with 44 entries of an essential upswing of the Affenpinscher breeding.  That in this volume of those registered would describe "Peter v. d.  Steinburg", 1772, Z.:  Plank, Munich, and "Poldi v. d.  Steinburg", 2460, Z.:  A. Stauber, Munich, as well as "Puppi Mercedes" 1655, Z.:  Mixed honestly these gave the breeding locations a strong resilience.  At the top, again Munich with eighteen entries, of which most of the black are noted.  Württemberg-Baden follows with eleven, Saxons with nine, Berlin with two, Hesse with two, Rhineland with an entry.  The color challenge remains very far off.  Red yellow were thirteen, black eleven, seven black with gray, four were red also, in addition, a gray, salt & pepper, yellow, silver-gray, dark gray, and a. m. (an unknown color)

The war volume V of the PK, 1914 to 1916 contains 17 entries, of which six were registered for Saxons, four for Württemberg-bathing, three for the Rhineland, one for Munich.  The colors were seven in black with brown, three were black, four red, one yellow, a dark stitched, and one iron gray. 

The merger of the Pinscher-Klub, seat Cologne, and the Schnauzer-Klub, seat Munich, brought also the union of the Affenpinscher breeding at the Pinscher-Schnauzer-Klub.  Feliz Ebner was an enthusiastic advocate.  It is to be owed to his passion that additional favorable progress, especially in Munich, came into the Affenpinscher breeding.  The volume I of the PSK shows an interesting development for the years 1917 to 1923:  Munich places 71 entries (about  33%), Hesses 58, Württemberg-Baden 42, Berlin 25, Rhineland 7, Saxons 3, Thuringia 2, Westphalia 1 the color scale shows now 84 black (about  40%), red, reddish brown and similar colors 62, black brown 27, black with gray stitched 14, pfslz, (salt and pepper/black and silver) 11, gray 5 and without statements  5.

This collection concludes the development of the Affenpinscher in its early stages.  The focal point of the breeding at this point was undoubtedly in Munich, although as represented here, other breeding areas were important.

 

Color footnote*
It is noted that attempts to manipulate color genetics in the Affenpinscher breed are still on-going.  Originally black and black with tan or brown markings were the “desired” colors, however, even after many years of concentrated effort, the 1917-1923 entries still indicated that the majority (about 60%) of the breed were colors other than black.

Color and pattern genes still exist in all Affenpinscher lines today.

Mitsy and stella

(Left) Black and silver mother with her black daughter (Right).

        

puppies on chair

Two Black and Tan puppies

 

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